Headline Structure

Headlines help users understand and scan the content on the page easily. This benefits all users, including those who have cognitive and low-vision disabilities. As well as, screen readers to accurately read the content in a meaningful way.

  • Display only one <h1> headline on a page
  • Arrange headlines in order (e.g. <h1> - <h6>)
  • Separate content with headlines
  • Provide descriptive headlines
  • Don't skip over headline (e.g. <h1>, <h3>)
  • Don't select headlines based on appearance
  • Don't use bold instead of a headline

Color Contrast

Contrast between the foreground and background of content benefits users with vision disabilities (e.g. older people with low vision), as well as assistive technology.

  • Small text should have a contrast ratio of 4.5:1
  • Large text and UI components should have a contrast ratio of 3:1
  • Don't rely on color to convey information


Links should be unique to each page as this benefits users who use screen readers and speech recognition software.

  • Define link's purpose
  • Link should be meaningful when read out of context 
  • Don't include words "link", "click here" or "read more" in links

Alt text

Alternative text help describe the image for users who have vision and cognitive disabilities, as well as assistive technology. 

  • All images should have an alt text
  • Describe the information in the image
  • Keep it short, < 120 characters long ideally
  • Decorative images (e.g. background patterns) should have empty alt text
  • Provide descriptive headlines
  • Don't include words "Image of", "Picture of" in alt text 

Pages Titles

Page titles that are unique and concise benefit users with cognitive, visual and mobility disabilities, as well as assistive technology.

  • Every page should have a unique page title
  • Page title should describe the page's content and purpose
  • Don't have the page title too short or too long
  • Don't have duplicate page titles on the website


Captions benefits users with cognitive disabilities and hearing impairments, as well as assistive technology.

  • All videos that provide information, should provide synchronized captions
    • Captions should be able to be turned on / off from user
  • Don't provide incorrect or synchronized captions to a user